Man still carries the ambition to maintain his status in society and one form of this is to perpetuate his lineage(kul ka naam) by having able bodied progeny/children.
With this aim he marries and plans to set up the social unit of FAMILY but many a times inspite of medical interventions and medicines, the couple is unable to conceive.
Naturally the husband and wife become dissapointed. They start doubting their own capability and added to this is the societal ridicule and pressure.
Dangerous events like depression and divorce may occur. This is not extreme and I have seen couples drifting apart and fighting because they were unable to have children and cannot manage a childless marriage. In India, the process of Adoption is still not very widely accepted. Not only is it socially a taboo but also the legal process of adopting a child(even if the parents are broad minded enough to genuinely want it) is very nerve wracking.
The birth of a child in the family is a blessing from the Supreme Power and the deeds of the PAST BIRTH bear a heavy influence on this. In the light of this connection, the role of ASTROLOGY becomes very important.
In the Horoscope, THE 5TH HOUSE, is called the PURVA PUNYA BHAAV and its also called the SANTAAN(Child) BHAV clearly establishing the linkage between the 2 aspects. 9TH HOUSE which is 5th from 5th ( Bhavata Bhavam) also needs to be studied and also the 7th House is important for progeny .
All these 3 houses, their lords should be well placed in the Natal Horoscope as well as the Navamansha Chart(D-9 Divisional Chart). They should not be in Papkartari, should not be aspected by Malefics. The 5.7.9 lords should not be Combust, Debilitated or ill placed or influenced by Malefics. Similarly the Karaka for progeny is Jupiter and needs to be strong in D1 and D-7.
The most important factor is the roll around of favourable Dasha for both the husband and wife. Dasha of one or more of the planets related to houses 5.7.9, Jupiter should be operational. In Transit, Jupiter and Saturn should also support . Mars is the significator of Blood and is intrumental in the CONCEPTION process. For successful birth, Mars should aspect the concerned House Lords, or transit over the concerned houses within 75 days of the birth of the child. Another important calculation is ARE THE MALE AND FEMALE CAPABLE OF CONCEIVING.? This is done by an interesting and very accurate method of " KSHETRA SPHUT" AND "BEEJ SPHUTA"
If the Past Birth Deeds have not been positive and the BALANCE in this birth in the KARMIC BALANCE SHEET IS NEGATIVE, the 5TH house especially will be AFFLICTED and very Poor. The 9th House(Dharm Sthana/Punya Sthana) will also be negatively affected. Its common to find that when either or both of these houses are afflicted/PAPAKRANT, there is DELAY/NO PROGENY and if a progeny is born it may expire or or be disabled/illness victim.